Consumers should avoid inhaling talcum powder or using the products on the female genital area, as exposure may cause potentially serious respiratory problems and possibly ovarian cancer.
Baby powder should also be kept away from a child's face to avoid inhalation, Health Canada and Environment and Climate Change Canada said Wednesday in releasing a draft screening assessment of products containing talc.
The draft assessment focuses on the safety of talc in such self-care products as cosmetics; baby, body, face and foot powders; diaper and rash creams; and genital antiperspirants and deodorants.
"When you inhale talc, the fine talc particles will get lodged inside of the lung, and over time there's a cumulative effect associated with that," said David Morin, director general of Health Canada's safe environments directorate.
Inhaling talc, a naturally occurring mineral, can cause difficulty breathing, decreased lung function and pulmonary fibrosis, a scarring of the lungs.
Products containing talc also have been linked to ovarian cancer in some women, and the Canadian Cancer Society identifies its use on the female genitals as a possible risk factor.
A number of class action lawsuits in the U.S. and Canada launched against Johnson & Johnson contend that longtime use of its talcum powder for feminine hygiene resulted in the development of the plaintiffs' ovarian cancer. The cosmetics giant has denied its product, which has been on the market since 1894, causes the disease.
Despite studies suggesting a link, Health Canada has not mandated that labels on talc-containing products carry specific warnings about the possible link with the development of ovarian cancer or the respiratory risks to adults who inadvertently inhale talcum powder particles.
Ottawa only requires label warnings related to the use of loose talc powder for infants and children, said Tolga Yalkin, head of Health Canada's consumer products safety directorate.
"Essentially, those warnings are: 'Keep out of reach of children' and 'Keep out of the way of a child's face to avoid inhalation, which can cause breathing problems,"' he said.
Final assessment in new year
Yalkin said the department is investigating the possibility of updating its cosmetic ingredient hotlist to include expanded warnings on product labels, but any decision would follow a 60-day consultation process that will end Feb. 6, and the final version of the screening assessment.
That consultation offers members of the public, talc-products manufacturers, academics and others to provide comment and information on the issue. Their input, as well as any new scientific evidence, will help inform the final assessment.
"It's possible you will see additional warnings that are mandated by Health Canada," Yalkin said.
Morin said that if the final screening assessment confirms that talc in certain products is harmful to human health, regulatory action will be taken to manage the identified risks.
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